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JAMESTOWN TER. CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION, 1907
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DAVIDSON AND NASH ARCHES
Erected by the United States Government at the Guilford Battle Ground,
1906, at the cost of $10,000, in accordance with the revival of an old act:
"November 4, 1777. — Resolved, That his excellency Governor Caswell, of
North Carolina, be requested to erect a monument of the value of $500, at the
expense of the United States, in honor of the memory of Brig. General Francis
Nash, who fell in the battle of Germantown, on the 4th day of October, 1777,
bravely contending for the independence of his coiinti-y- Vol. 2, p. 312."
"Davidson, Brigadier-General, September 20, 1781. — On motion of Mr.
Sharpe, Resolved, That the governor and council of the State of North Carolina
be desired to erect a monument, at the expense of the United States, not exceed-
ing the value of $500, to the memory of, etc. Vol. 3, p. 669."
North Carolina Historical Exhibit
Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, 1907.
It has been the purpose of this exhibit to illustrate by portraits,
maps, manuscripts, books, implements, and domestic utensils of all
kinds the early history of North Carolina and her people. In order
that the visitor ma}"" look with more intelligence and have a better
appreciation of what is before him this little book is offered as a guide.
Beginning with the wall space on the right are the John White
pictures. The original of these water colors, done by John White,
Governor of the colony sent out by Sir Walter Kaleigh, 1587, and
protraying the habits of the North Carolina aborigineis, hang in the
British Museum. The United States government realizing the historic
value of these water colors, commissioned Mr. Albert Sterner to cop}^
them for the Smithsonian. A duplicate of this order was given by
Colonel Beneham Cameron and replicas of the pictureis presented
by him to the State of North Carolina.
The thirteen oil paintings done^by Mr. Jaeque Busbee, hanging
directly under the John White pictures, give a good idea of the
Eoanoke Island of today, and presumably, of the Eoanoke Island of
long ago when the first English colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh
landed there in 1584.
Next chronologically are photographic reproductions of the eight
Lords Proprietors with the grant, to whom, in 1663, the real history
of North Carolina may be said to have begun.
Mrs. Beal's splendid picture of Charles I. occupies the centre
space, round which are grouped portraits of North Carolina worthies,
among the number Penn and Hughes and Hooper, signers of the
National Declaration of Independence from North Carolina.
General Joseph Graham (1759-1836) : ''Who possibly has done more
than any one person to vindicate the truth of ISTorth Carolina's Eevo-
lutionary history. " .
Hon. W. A. Graham (1804-1875): ''Had often been a member
of the Legislature, represented the State in the United States Senate,
was Secretary of the Navy and twice Governor of North Carolina."
Judge James Iredell (1788-1853): ''He acted sometime in the ofl3.ce
of Attorney General, was also appointed a member of the honorable
Council of State, under the administration of Governor Johnston,
likewise one of the judges of our Superior Courts, of Law and Equity.
He was appointed by the General Assembly to revise the lawSi of
North Carolina, which trust he executed with such fidelity and eare
as secured to him the approbation and esteem of the public at large.
Such wisdom and integrity, however modest, cannot escape the public
eye and must ever continue to rise by a rapid gradation. He was
accordingly called to fill the seat of justice in a higher tribunal. By
a federal appointment he was made one of the judges of that court.
This was to him, I believe, a sphere of eminence from which he shone
with peculiar lustre. I have often heard high enconiums on the merit
of this great and good man, but never in a single instance have I
heard his character traduced or his integrity called in question."
Judge Alfred Moore (1755-1810) : ''Captain in the first regiment of
North Carolina Continental troops, elected Attorney General of the
State, appointed by the President of the United States an Associate
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Of siich a man our
State may well be proud. His life and services, consecrated to the
cause of liberty and the best welfare of his country, will ever render
dear to every North Carolinian the name of Moore. ' '
Hon. George Badger (1795-1866): "A Judge, a United States
Senator, and Secretary of the Navy, esteemed the first lawyer and the
most eloquent orator of his day in the State, When he spoke the rich
musical tone of his voice, the perfection and eloquence of his language
and his faultless pronunciation, charmed his hearers and persuaded all
who listened to him. The attention became riveted and the spell was
never broken till he chose to suspend and permit you to breathe again
in freedom. One of the noblest traits of Mr. Badger's character was
his fearless candor and indifference to popular applause. He supported
every measure as it commended itself to his judgment and rejected
everyone which met his disapprobation. He was a supremely great
William E. Davie (1756-1820): "A dashing cavalry officer, a
patriot spending his entire fortune as well as his blood for his country,
a lawyer of the largest attainment and an orator of superb intelli-
gence, a member of the National Constitutional Convention of 1777
and of the North Carolina Convention of 1788, the founder of the
State University, Grand Master of Masons, Governor of the State,
and Minister to France."
Kev. Eli Caruthers (1793-1865) : Eminent for his piety and
fervent patriotism and his uncompromising love for his dear old
state, North Garoliiua. In his '^Sketche® of the Old North State,
1776, First and Second Series," he has done the State an infinite
Judge William Gaston (1778-1844) : Nothing could give a better
idea of the character of this loved North Carolinian than to copy
the resolutions unanimously adopted by the General A&sembly of his
State on the occasion of his death: ' ^ The General Assembly of
North Carolina has learned that since their last session onC' of the
most distinguished of our citizens has died. On the 23rd of January,
1844, William Gaston, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of
North Carolina, after an illness- of a few hours, departed this life.
The General Assembly of the State, from the unsullied character and
inestimable worth of this distinguished citizen, is conscious that
no acts or words can express their deep veneration for his character
or their sorrow for his irreparable loss. ' Storied urn or animated
bust' cannot remind us more sensibly of his exalted worth, for this
is impressed deeply in every heart. Literally baptised in the blood
of his distinguished ancestor, who fell in the revolutionary struggles
of our country, he was early impressed with an abiding love of his
native State, and devoted the whole energies of his well disciplined
mind to its service. In all the varied stations of importance to which
he was called by the confidence of his fellow citizens he devoted with
untiring energy all the powers of his mind to the promotion of the
public weal. As a man he was exemplary in all the relations of life;
a devoted husband and affectionate father. As a statesman he was
pure and .patriotic; the honor of his country was the chief object of
his heart. As an advocate he was faithful and zealous. As a judge
he was learned and impartial; and he died, as the whole of his life
had been spent, in the service of the State. When such a man dies,
the State may well mourn. The sensation caused by his death testi-
fied the estimation in which he was held by his countrymen. Noth-
ing could exceed his long, . bright and glorious career in life, but
the tranquil manner in which he left it. Full of years and full of
honors, he left without a struggle or mumur a world of gloom for
an eternity of glory. Truly was it said by one, who knew liim long
and knew him well, 'He was a good man and a great judge'.' The
General Assembly of the State of North Carolina feel their inability
to express their own feelings or those of their constituents in view
of the loss which the State has sustained; yet they deem it due to
the memory of departed talents and gratitude of his long and faith-
ful services to offer the following resolutions:
''Eesolved, by the General Assembly of the State of North Caro-
lina, that in the death of William Gaston, one of the Judges of the
Supreme Coui-t, the State has experienced a loss of one of its most
patriotic citizens, a faithful public servant, a learned, and impartial
judge. That in the course of a long and varied life his bright career
is left to us as an example worthy of imitation and his unsullied
character one .of the brightest jewels of the State.
''Ee&olved, that the Grovemor of the State transmit a copy of
these resolutions, with the preamble, to the family of the deceased
and that" they be spread on the journals of both branches of the
General Assembly. "
Judge Gaston is kmown and loved by all North Carolinians as the
author of our State hymn, ''The Old North State Forever".
Besides these portraits there is a valuable collection of silhouettes,
photographs and prints of other noted North Carolinians, both men
and women, names that are dear to the he-9,rt of North Carolina and
have so ably contributed to make her history ^what it is. A portrait
of peculiar interest is that of Theodosia Burr, daughter of Aaron
Burr and wife of Governor Alston, of South Carolina. Mrs. Alston
met a horrible fate at the hand of pirates on the coast of North
Carolina in January, 1813. This portrait of her was washed ashore
at Nag's Head and- found by a fisherman there. Later it came into
the possession of Mrs. Overman, of Elizabeth City, by whom it was
Beginning with the cases at the right, case A. contains historic
silver. Chalice and paten presented to St. Paul's Church, Edenton, in
172.5, by Col. Edward Mosely, one time chief justice, and faithful
commissioner from North Carolina, when the dividing line between
Virginia and our OTvn State was run, a man ever most active in
promoting the prosperity and liberty of his State. Chalice and paten
used in the First German Reformed Church in Alamance County,
1780. Part of Governor Eden's tea service. Tea service belonging to
Governor. Samuel Johnston and the silver service belonging to the
Cameiron family. Part of the silver service given to Flora Mac-
Donald by Prince Charlie. Set of massive tablespoons given by Louis
XIV ^^ his court physician. Dr. de Brutz. ShefS.eld plate basket made
^J^MHp Loving cup won by the horse ' ' Sparrow ' ' at Pembroke,
Apri]n[7, 1754. This horse was owned by Thomas Barker, the husband
of Penelope Baker Barker, who was famous as being president of the
Edenton tea party. A plate owned by George Durant, to whom a
grant of land was given, bj' the King of the Yeopim Indians, March
16th, 1661-1662, A royal Sevres plate, one of the set given by
Napoleon as a coronation gift to his brother Joseph Bonaparte,
when he was created King of Spain. This is owned by Mrs. Lindsey
Patterson, of North Carolina. A very quaint and massive ladle
owned by Penelope Baker Barker.
Case B.: This case is filled with articles of vertu, among other
things a pair of silver kneebuckles, set with brilliants, belonging to
Judge James Iredell; black satin robe, worn by Judge James Iredell,
while Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States;
a pair of silver kneebuckleis. set with brilliants, belonging to Gov-
ernor Gabriel Johnston; a silver snuff box, belonging to Governor
Gabriel Johnston; a silver buckle, slide and badge, belonging to
Daniel Morgan; Davy Crockett's powder horn, the one always seen
painted with him in his portraits; a miniature of Thomas Amis,
member of the Committee of Safety of North Carolina; two magnifi-
cent gold and pearl fans, and two quaint memorial lockets, the mak-
ing of which is a lost art; silver teaspoon made from Colonel Patrick
Fergurson 's kneebuckle.
Case C: This is filled with costumes of the early colonial period,
and those showing the influence of the French empire, with beauti-
ful textiles, displaying the wonderful skill of the weaver's art.
Specimens of pottery, including pieces of spode, Wedgewood German-
Encaustic and French underglaze, and of particular interest, two
pieces of china and a tea caddy, used at the historical Edenton tea
party. Surmounting this case is a model of the Edenton tea party
house, presented by Dr. Eichard Dillard. This is the house in which
the famous Edenton tea party was held, October 25th, 1774, at which
fifty-one patriotic women vowed to drink no more tea until the tax
was repealed. Hanging immediately above this is a copy in oils of
the picture, "The Edenton Tea Party." The history of the original
of this picture has been given by Dr. Eichard Dillard in his brochure,
''The Historic Edenton Tea Party." I quote him in part: ''Lieu-
tentant William T. Muse, a United States naval ofiieer, who became
conspicuous during the civil war, and whose mother was a Miss Blount,
of Edenton, while on a cruise in the Mediterranean stopped at Port
Mahon on the island of Minorca, and accidentally saw hanging in
a barber's shop there a picture, representing the Edenton tea party
of 1774. It was purchased, and brought by him to Edenton in 1830.
I have this date from an old Bible bearing the date of his return from
the cruise. It was first placed on exhibition in the court house, and
the representation of the characters was so distinct that many of
the ladies were easily recognized. It then found a resting place in
the old tailor shop of Joseph Manning, ancestor of Chief Justice
Manning, of Louisiana, and finally in a cracked condition, was
entrusted to the care of a lady. During the confusion of refugeeing
incident to the civil war, it was by some misadventure broken in
three pieces. It is a painting upon glass, twelve by fourteen inches.
Upon one of the pieces is the declaration set forth by the ladies, that
they would drink no tea nor wear any stuffs of British manufacture.
Upon another is the picture of the lady, who presided upon that
GOVERNOR TRYON'S "PALACE" AT NEW BERN, N. C.
Begun in 1767. finished in 1770, costing 15,000 pounds, admitted to be the
handsomest building in America.
The erection of the Palace ''in a province straightened in its finances,
limited in its resources and sparsely settled as North Carolina was at that
time", imposing as it did such a tremendous tax on an already overtaxed
people, was one of the causes which led up to the Regulation troubles and had
much to do with the odium attached to Trvon and his administration.
occasion. She is seated at a table with a pen in her hand, her maid,
Amelia, standing behind her chair. This maid lived for many years
after this incident, and is still remembered by some of the 'oldest
citizens. By a singular coincidence her granddaughter is still living
upon the very same lot where the tea party was held. Upon the
third fragment of this picture in plain letters is written, ' The Town
of Edenton.' It is not known how the picture of this party was
obtained, or how it found its way to Port Mahon, or even into the
barber shop. The printer's name in the cornor of the picture is said
to have been the same one who printed the celebrated letters of
Junius in the reign of George III. ' '
Case D. is filled with autograph letters, including those from Penn,
Hooper and Hughes, Governor Samuel Johnston, Judge James Iredell,
John Paul Jones, Willie Jones, ''Hal Dixon" Lafayette, Eochambeau,
Washington, Nathaniel Green, ''Mad Anthony Wayne", David Fan-
ning, Eichard Caswell, Jethro Sumner, John Hinton, and Andrew
Jackson. In this case also is the ledger kept at Bute — afterwards
Warren County — courthouse, in 1769, in which are found most
interesting entries, .among others a lengthy account "against Mr.
Jethro Sumner", in which that favorite beverage of our ancestors,
"bumbo", figures conspicuously. A day-book belonging to Patrick
Mennaye, pioneer merchant of the "State of ' Franklin". These are
merely incidents taken almost at random to show the character of the
Case F. is a private collection installed by Misis Lida Eodman,
of Washington, N. C, and contains valuable and beautiful articles
belonging to the Eodman, Blount and Bonner families. Among other
things is the original map of Washington, N. C, done in 1776 by James
Bonner, Colonel of the Beaufort County regiment of Eevolutionary
troops. — 'Washington, N. C, is probably the first town so called.
Case G., "Battle Case": In this case is a varied collection of
most interesting relics from the battlefields of Alamance, Moore's
Creek, Eamsour's Mill, King's Mountain and Guilford Court House,
assembled together after over a hundred years' obscurity. "Plan of
the camp and Battle of Alamance, May 16th, 1771, between Pro-
vincials of North- Carolina, commanded by his excellency. Governor
Tryon, and the rebels, who styled themselves Eegulators. " Tablet:
' ' The Battle of Alamance, the first battle of the Eevolutionary War,
was fought in Orange County, May 16th, 1771." Swords used at the
Battle of Alamance. And of paramount importance, the first Liberty
Bell. In absence of a drum, this bell was used to call the Eegulators
together at Alamance, May 16th, 1771, thus announcing that the
battle for liberty had already begun, five years before the big bell
;i]»^ic Vr 'i i i'!T*lTff kfl'il i i :^ i
.,.f :^tHE|FIRST VICTOfm^fc
PLtt OF STHE^ PROVINCE;
at Philadelphia proclaimed liberty throughout the world, July 4th,
1776. Swords, pistols, manual of arms, m.edicine case and cuff-
buttons, picked up on the battlefield of Moore's Creek and Eamsour's
Mill. Dumbbell belonging to Col. Patrick Ferguson, whose right arm
was shattered by a bullet at Brandywine, but by constantly exercis-
ing his left it soon became as strong as the right arm was originally.
Col. Ferguson was killed at the battle of King's Mountain, and this
dumbbell with his other personal belongings fell to the American offi-
cers. Powder horns, one owned by John Sloan, one by George David-
.son; both of these men were killed at King's Mountain. Canteen of
John Morehead, used by him during the Southern campaign under
Greene, owned by the Guilford Battle Ground Company. Gun and
powder horn carried by Captain Jesse Franklin, afterwards Gov-
ernor of North Carolina, throughout the Revolutionary War, and'
owned by the Guilford Battle Ground Company. Somewhat
eroded, but skillfully restored, the Damascus blade of the Hon.
Lieutenant Colonel Stewart, Commander of the second battalion
of British Guards, may be seen, and the visitor may distinctly trace
the armorial bearing of his ancient Scottish house. Lieutenant
Colonel Stewart was killed at the battle of Guilford Court House
March 15th, 1781, in a hand to hand encounter with Captain John
• Smith, of the First Maryland. A knife, carried by a Scotch High-
lander at the battle of Guilford Court House. Shaving-^ case, given
by Nathaniel Greene to ''My beloved companion in arms, Peter Fran-
cisco". This case was loaned by the Pescuds of Raleigh. And,
unique in the horribleness of its history, a pitchfork. During the
Revolutionaiy War one Powell, a Tory, with several companions, was
C'ndeavoring to break into the house of John x^lexander, a staunch
Whig. Jean Alexander, his daughter, seizing this pitchfork, thrust
it through the crack of the log's into Powell's body. His companions
bore him away shrieking in agony, where, two miles further on, he
died. The place' to this day is known as Powell's Ridge, near Pleasant
Garden, Guilford County. Added to the above are guns, sw^ords,
cannon balls and the general and familiar waste of battle.
Cases H-K. contain the exhibit from the Wachovian Historical
Society, Salem, N. C. This exhibit gives a most interesting picture
of the life and customs of this famous Moravian settlement. Hardly
anywhere else in the country could so much material illus'trating the
life of a people be found. One case contains "a century of illumina-
tions", from the old candle wheel to ithe lights of today. Home-made
utensils of every sort, used about the house or on the farm. ''A cen-
tury' of musical instruments", including a quaint harpsichord, numer-
ous brass horns, a queer old trombone and bassoon. No wonder ''the
wedding guest, he beat his breast, when he heard the loud bassoon",
for judging from the appearance ef this ancient instrument it must
liave given forth ear-splitting sounds. These instruments were used
in the serenade of welcome, ''God Save Great Washington", on the
occasion of his visit to Salem in 1791, and in the same case is the
original manuscript music of this sereinade. An ancient printing
pressi, seized by Cornwallis, at Hillsboro, and used by him for print-
ing his proclamations. The first fire engine brought to North Carolina,
1785, and a series of letters, showing the history of postage, from
the time when it cos>t $1.75 to send a letter, to the two cents postage
of today. Among the most valuable possessions of this Moravian
exhibit are the three original maps ■ of Salem and vicinity, which
occupy the wall space to the left.
Three historic chairs invite the visitor to rest, one belonging to
Washington; one an ancient ''split bottom", P^-^'t of the furniture
in the Hoskins house, taken possession of and used by Cornwallis
as headquarters' at the time of the battle of Guilford Court House,
and one from Buncombe Hall, where, over the door, this hospitable
inscription greeted the stranger, "Welcome all to Bucombe Hall".
Such, in a general way, is the material offered for inspection. It
is all tabletted, so at a glance its history is. known and its date clear.
SCENES AT GUILFORD BATTLE GROUND
The battle of Guilford Court House, fought on Thursday, March 15th, 1781,
between the American forces under Major-General Nathaniel Greene, and the
British forces under Lord Cornwallis, was second in its results to no battle of
the Revolutionary War. ''That battle made the capture of Yorktown."